[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit ::
:: Volume 26, Issue 1 (1-2014) ::
J Iran Dent Assoc 2014, 26(1): 39-45 Back to browse issues page
Comparison of Salivary Cotinine Concentration in Cigarette Smokers, Water Pipe Smokers and Non–Smokers
Maryam Rabiei *1, Morteza Rahbar Taramsar2, Mehrdad Sadegh Kanjani3, Ehsan Kazemnezhad Leyli4, Hosain Masoudi Rad5, Mohammad Jafari Farshami6
1- Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran , rabiei@gums.ac.ir
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran
3- PHD Reference laboratory, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran
4- Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran
5- Assistant Professor, Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran
6- Dentist
Abstract:   (7139 Views)

  Background and Aim : Water pipe smoking has become a public health hazard. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the concentration of salivary cotinine in cigarette smokers, water pipe smokers and nonsmokers .

  Materials and Methods : Forty-eight volunteers (16 cigarette smokers, 16 water pipe smokers and 16 nonsmokers) participated in this cross-sectional study. High sensitivity Salivary Cotinine Quantitative enzyme immunoassay kit was used to measure the salivary cotinine concentration. Non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression were used to determine the correlation between number of cigarettes smoked and concentration of cotinine .

  Results : The mean concentration of salivary cotinine was 223.74(±181.56) ng/ml (the highest) in cigarette smokers, 106.24 (±135.23) ng/ml in water pipe smokers and 0.73(±1.24) ng/ml in nonsmokers. The difference in this respect among the 3 groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). In smokers, the level of salivary cotinine increased by 1.84 ng/ml per each time of cigarette smoking per week. This increase was 14.57 ng/ml per each time of water pipe consumption per week .

  Conclusion : The mean concentration of salivary cotinine was significantly higher among cigarette smokers compared to water pipe smokers and nonsmokers. However, one time consumption of water pipe caused a greater rise in salivary cotinine level compared to cigarette smoking .

Keywords: Cotinine, Saliva, Smoking, Tobacco
Full-Text [PDF 207 kb]   (3261 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Oral Medicine
1. Wong, C. 2002. The history of the hubble-bubble. The Daily Northwestern No-vember 23:1.
2. Shafagoj Y, Mohammed F, Hadidi K. Hubblie bubble (Water pipe) smoking: Levels of nico-tine and cotinine in plasma, saliva and urine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jun; 40(6):249-55.
3. Rastam S, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Maziak W. Estimating the beginning of the waterpipe epidemic in Syria. BMC Public Health. 2004 Aug 4;4:32.
4. Mary P, Martinasek, Ches, Robert J. McDermott, Faahb, and Leila Martini. Water-pipe (Hookah) tobacco smoking among youth. Curr Probl Pediat Adolesc Health Care. 2011 Feb;41 (2):34-57.
5. Aghamolaei T, Zare S. Cigarette and Hookah using pattern in over-15 population of Bandar-Abbas, a population base study. Bim J Hormozgan Univ of Med Sci. 2008 Winter; 11(4): 241-6.
6. Al Mutairi SS, Shihab-Eldeen AA, Mojiminiyi OA, Anwar AA. Comparative analysis of the effects of hubble-bubble (Sheesha) and ciga-rette smoking on respiratory and metabolic pa-rameters in hubble-bubble and cigarette smok-ers. Respirology 2006 Jul;11(4):449-55.
7. Eissenberg T, Ward KD, Smith-Simone S, Maziak W. Waterpipe tobacco smoking on a U.S. college campus: Prevalence and correlates. J Adolesc Health. 2008 May; 42(5):526-9.
8. Lee CK, Brown BG, Rice Jr WY, Doolittle DJ. Role of oxygen free radicals in the induction of sister chomatid exchanges by cigarette smoke. Env Mol Mutagen. 1989 Jan; 13(1):54-9.
9. Akl EA, Gaddam S, Gunukula SK, Honeine R, Jaoude PA, Irani J. The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: a system-atic review. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun; 39(3):834-57.
10. David J. Triggle. Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC; 1996.
11. Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Env Health Perspect. 1999 May; 107 Suppl 2:349-55.
12. Rose JE, Levin ED, Benowitz N. Saliva nicotine as an index of plasma levels in nicotine skin patch users. Ther Drug Monit. 1993 Oct; 15 (5): 431-5.
13. Jarvis MJ, Primatesta P, Erens B, Feyerabend C, Bryant A. Measuring nicotine intake in population surveys: Comparability of saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine estimates. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003 Jun; 5(3):349-55.
14. Jarvis MJ, Russell MA, Benowitz NL, Feyerabend C. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure. Am J Public Health. 1988 Jun; 78(6):696-8.
15. Teeuwen HW, Aalders RJ, Van Rossum JM. Simultaneous estimation of nicotine and co-tinine levels in biological fluids using high-resolution capillary-column gas chromatography combined with solid phase extraction work-up. Mol Biol Rep. 1988-1989; 13(3):165-75.
16. Bacha ZA, Salameh P, Waked M. Saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide levels in natural environment waterpipe smokers. Inhal Toxicol. 2007 Jul; 19(9):771-7.
17. Behera D, Uppal R, Majumdar S. Urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine in tobacco users. Indian J Med Res. 2003 Sep; 118:129-33.
18. Jaakkola MS, Ma J, Yang G, Chin MF, Benowitz NL, Ceraso M, Samet JM. Determi-nants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers. Prev Med. 2003 Mar; 36(3):282-90.
19. Monn Ch, Kindler P, Meile A, Brändli O. Ultrafine particle emissions from waterpipes. Tob Control. 2007 Dec; 16(6):390-3.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rabiei M, Rahbar Taramsar M, Sadegh Kanjani M, Kazemnezhad Leyli E, Masoudi Rad H, Jafari Farshami M. Comparison of Salivary Cotinine Concentration in Cigarette Smokers, Water Pipe Smokers and Non–Smokers. J Iran Dent Assoc 2014; 26 (1) :39-45
URL: http://jida.ir/article-1-1555-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 26, Issue 1 (1-2014) Back to browse issues page
Journal of Iranian Dental Association


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly

Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4570