[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit ::
:: Volume 26, Issue 2 (4-2014) ::
J Iran Dent Assoc 2014, 26(2): 136-147 Back to browse issues page
Use of Saliva for Diagnosis of Diseases
Jamile Taaheri1, Mahin Bakhshi2, Azarnoosh Aryankia3, Robab Noormohammadi *4
1- Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Tehran, Iran
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Tehran, Iran
3- Postgraduate Student, Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Tehran, Iran
4- Postgraduate Student, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Tehran, Iran , robab.noormohammadi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (6244 Views)

  Background and Aim : Timely diagnosis is an important factor in successful treatment of diseases. In . this regard, non-invasive sampling methods such as salivary analysis may be of great help in assessment of diseases and treatment outcomes .  Currently, introduction of new techniques for salivary analysis has increased its potential as a new diagnosing tool .

  Materials and Methods : The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) was the first to propose the role of saliva in diagnosis and assessment of diseases. Since then, several studies have been conducted in this respect. This review article aims to evaluate the results of these studies to provide a brief insight on the correlation of saliva with different oral and systemic diseases. Key words namely saliva, biomarkers, oral diseases and systemic diseases were searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Scopus and Medline databases and articles relevant to the use of saliva for evaluation and detection of various diseases published during 1950-2011 were collected .

  Results : Salivary analysis increases the collaboration between dentists and physicians and can be used for detection of some systemic conditions .

  Conclusion: This review study discusses the role of saliva in detection of different oral and systemic conditions and emphasizes its importance .

Keywords: Saliva, Biomarkers, Oral diseases, Systemic diseases
Full-Text [PDF 225 kb]   (1822 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Oral Medicine
1. Lee YH, Wong DT. Saliva: An emerging bio-fluid for early detection of diseases. Am J Dent. 2009 Aug; 22(4):241-8.
2. Kaufman E, Lamster IB. The diagnostic applica-tions of saliva--a review. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2002March; 13(2):197-212.
3. Dawes C. Considerations in the development of diagnostic tests on saliva. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Sept 20; 694:265-9.
4. Lee JM, Garon E, Wong DT. Salivary diagnos-tics. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2009 Aug;12(3):206-11.
5. Kawas SA, Rahim ZH, Ferguson DB. Potential uses of human salivary protein and peptide analysis in the diagnosis of disease. Arch Oral Biol. 2012 Jul; 57(1):1-9.
6. Fábián TK, Fejérdy P, Csermely P. Salivary Ge-nomics, transcriptomics and proteomics: The Emerging Concept of the Oral Ecosystem and their use in the early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. -Curr Genomics. 2008 Mar; 9(1):11-21.
7. Rudney JD, Staikov RK, Johnson JD. Potential biomarkers of human salivary function: a modi-fied proteomic approach. Arch Oral Biol. 2009 Jan; 54 (1):91-100.
8. Senpuku H, Miyazaki H, Yoneda S, Yoshihara A, Tada A. A quick statistically accurate diag-nosis for caries risk in the elderly. Clin Lab. 2010; 56 (11-12):505-12.
9. Preethi BP, Reshma D, Anand P. Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, to-tal proteins and total antioxidant capacity levels of saliva in caries free and caries active chil-dren: An In Vivo Study. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2010 Oct; 25(4):425-8.
10. Miller CS, King CP Jr, Langub MC, Kryscio RJ, Thomas MV. Salivary biomarkers of existing periodontal disease: A cross-sectional study. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Mar; 137(3):322-9.
11. Rai B, Kharb S, Jain R, Anand SC. Biomarkers of periodontitis in oral fluids. J Oral Sci. 2008 Mar; 50(1):53-612.
12. Al-Sabbagh M, Alladah A, Lin Y, Kryscio RJ, Thomas MV, Ebersole JL, et al. Bone remodel-ing-associated salivary biomarker MIP-1α dis-tinguishes periodontal disease from health. J Periodontal Res. 2012 June; 47(3)389-395.
13. Sorsa T, Tervahartiala T, Leppilahti J, Hernan-dez M, Gamonal J, Tuomainen AM, et al. Col-lagenase-2 (MMP-8) as a point-of-care bi-omarker in periodontitis and cardiovascular dis-eases. Therapeutic response to non-antimicrobial properties of tetracyclines. Pharmacol Res. 2011 Feb; 63(2): 108-13.
14. Dağ A, Fırat ET, Kadiroğlu AK, Kale E, Yılmaz ME. Significance of elevated gingival crevicular fluid tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleu-kin-8 levels in chronic hemodialysis patients with periodontal disease. J Periodontal Res. 2010 Aug; 45 (4):445-50.
15. Rudrakshi C, Srinivas N, Mehta DS. A com-parative evaluation of hepatocyte growth factor levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva and its correlation with clinical parameters in pa-tients with and without chronic periodontitis: A clinico-biochemical study. J Indian Soc Perio-dontol. 2011 Apr; 15(2):147-51.
16. Bassim CW, Redman RS, DeNucci DJ, Becker KL, Nylen ES. Salivary procalcitonin and peri-odontitis in diabetes. J Dent Res. 2008 Jul; 87(7): 630-4.
17. Lappin DF, Sherrabeh S, Erridge C. Stimulants of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are elevated in saliva of periodontitis patients compared with healthy subjects. J Clin Periodontol. 2011 Apr; 38(4):318-25.
18. Alpagot T, Remien J, Bhattacharyya M, Konopka K. Longitudinal evaluation of prosta-glandin E2 (PGE2) and periodontal status in HIV+ patients. Arch Oral Biol. 2007 Nov; 52(11):1102-8.
19. Alpagot T, Konopka K, Bhattacharyya M, Ge-bremedhin S, Düzgüneş N. The association be-tween gingival crevicular fluid TGF-beta1 levels and periodontal status in HIV-1(+) patients. J Periodontol. 2008 Jan; 79(1):123-30.
20. Shi RT, Qin LZ, Xia DS, Deng DJ, Fan ZP, Shan ZC, Xu YY, Wang SL. Increase of saliva nitrate and nitrite level in patients with oral candidiasis. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009 Jul; 43(7):607-10.
21. Tanida T, Okamoto T, Okamoto A, Wang H, Hamada T, Ueta E, et al. Decreased excretion of antimicrobial proteins and peptides in saliva of patients with oral candidiasis. J Oral Pathol&Med: 2003 Nov; 32(10):586-594.
22. Peters BM, Zhu J, Fidel PL Jr, Scheper MA, Hackett W, El Shaye S, et al. Protection of the oral mucosa by salivary histatin-5 against Can-dida albicans in an ex vivo murine model of oral infection. FEMS Yeast Res. 2010 Aug;10(5):597-604.
23. Torres SR, Garzino-Demo A, Meiller TF, Meeks V, Jabra-Rizk MA. Salivary histatin-5 and oral fungal colonisation in HIV+ individuals. My-coses: 2009 Jan; 52(1):11-15.
24. Ghallab NA, el-Wakeel N, Shaker OG. Levels of salivary IFN-gamma, TNF-alfa, and TNF re-ceptor-2 as prognostic markers in (erosive) oral lichen planus. Mediators Inflamm. 2010 Feb:847632.
25. Dan H, Liu W, Wang J, Wang Z, Wu R, Chen Q, et al. Elevated IL-10 concentrations in serum and saliva from patients with oral lichen planus. Quintessence Int. 2011 Feb; 42(2):157-63.
26. Rhodus NL, Cheng B, Bowles W, Myers S, Mil-ler L, Ondrey F. Proinflammatory cytokine lev-els in saliva before and after treatment of (ero-sive) oral lichen planus with dexamethasone. Oral Dis. 2006 Mar; 12(2):112-6.
27. Zidverc-Trajkovic J, Stanimirovic D, Obrenovic R, Tajti J, Vécsei L, Gardi J, et al. Calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in saliva of patients with burning mouth syndrome. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009 Jan; 38(1):29-33.
28. Boras VV, Savage NW, Brailo V, Lukac J, Lukac M, Alajbeg IZ. Salivary and serum levels of substance P, neurokinin A and calcitonin gene related peptide in burning mouth syn-drome. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010 May; 1; 15(3): e427-31.
29. Borelli V, Marchioli A, Di Taranto R, Romano M, Chiandussi S, Di Lenarda R, Biasotto M, Zabucchi G. Neuropeptides in saliva of subjects with burning mouth syndrome: A pilot study. Oral Dis. 2010 May; 16(4):365-74.
30. Pekiner FN, Gümrü B, Demirel GY, Ozbayrak S. Burning mouth syndrome and saliva: Detec-tion of salivary trace elements and cytokines. J Oral Pathol Med. 2009 Mar; 38(3):269-75.
31. Zunt SL. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Derma-tol Clin. 2003 Jan;21(1):33-9.
32. Saral Y, Coskun BK, Ozturk P, Karatas F, Ayar A. Assessment of salivary and serum antioxi-dant vitamins and lipid peroxidation in patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2005 Aug;206(4):305-12.
33. Gu Y, Zhang G, Lin M. Quantity research on epidermal growth factor in saliva and epidermal growth factor receptor in biopsy samples of re-current aphthous ulcer patients. Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008 Feb; 26(1):36-9.
34. Adişen E, Aral A, Aybay C, Gürer MA. Salivary epidermal growth factor levels in Behçet's dis-ease and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Derma-tol. 2008 Jul; 217(3):235-40.
35. Kumar BP, Keluskar V, Bagewadi AS, Shetti A. Evaluating and comparing phagocytic functions of salivary and blood neutrophils in patients with recurrent aphthous ulcers and controls. Quintessence Int. 2010 May;41(5):411-6.
36. Eguia-del Valle A, Martinez-Conde-Llamosas R, López-Vicente J, Uribarri-Etxebarria A, Aguir-re-Urizar JM. Salivary levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011 Jan; 16(1):e33-6.
37. Momen-Beitollahi J, Mansourian A, Momen-Heravi F, Amanlou M, Obradov S, Sahebjamee M. Assessment of salivary and serum antioxi-dant status in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010 Jul; 15 (4):e557-61.
38. Martinez Kde O, Mendes LL, Alves JB. Secreto-ry A immunoglobulin, total proteins and sali-vary flow in Recurrent Aphthous Ulceration. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 May-Jun; 73(3):323-8.
39. Kaufman E, Lamster IB. The diagnostic applica-tions of saliva-a review. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2002 Jan; 13(2):197-212.
40. Minarowska A, Minarowski L, Karwowska A, Sands D, Dabrowska E. The activity of cathep-sin D in saliva of cystic fibrosis patients. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2007 July;45(3):165-8.
41. Minarowski Ł, Sands D, Minarowska A, Kar-wowska A, Sulewska A, Gacko M, Chyczewska E. Thiocyanate concentration in saliva of cystic fibrosis patients. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2008April; 46(2):245-6.
42. Minarowski L, Minarowska L, Karwowska A. Activity of lysosomal carboxypeptidase A in mixed saliva of cystic fibrosis patients. J Cystic Fibrosis. 2008Jun;7(2):1-34.
43. Rashid M, Zarkadas M, Anca A, Limeback H. Oral manifestations of celiac disease: A clinical guide for dentists. J Can Dent Assoc. 2011Oct; 77: b25-39.
44. Hakeem V, Fifield R, al-Bayaty HF, Aldred MJ. Salivary IgA antigliadin antibody as a marker for coeliac disease. Arch Dis Child. 1992 Jun; 67 (6):724-7.
45. Bonamico M, Nenna R, Montuori M, Luparia RP, Turchetti A, Mennini M, et al. First salivary screening of celiac disease by detection of anti-transglutaminase autoantibody radioimmunoas-say in 5000 Italian primary schoolchildren. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 Jan; 52(1):17-20.
46. Bonamico M, Nenna R, Luparia RP, Perricone C, Montuori M, Lucantoni F, et al. Radioim-munological detection of anti-transglutaminase autoantibodies in human saliva: A useful test to monitor coeliac disease follow-up. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug1;28(3):364-70.
47. Lenander-Lumikari M, Ihalin R, Lähteenoja H. Changes in whole saliva in patients with coeliac disease. Arch Oral Biol. 2000 May; 45(5):347-54.
48. Concolino P, Mello E, Zuppi C, Capoluongo E. Molecular diagnosis of congenital adrenal hy-perplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency: an update of new CYP21A2 mutations. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2010 Aug; 48(8):1057-62.
49. Zerah M, Ueshiba H, Wood E, Speiser PW, Crawford C, McDonald T, et al. Prevalence of nonclassical steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency based on a morning salivary 17-hydroxyprogesterone screening test: A small sample study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jun; 70 (6):1662-7.
50. Zerah M, Pang SY, New MI. Morning salivary 17-hydroxyprogesterone is a useful screening test for nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Aug; 65(2):227-32.
51. Hu S, Wang J, Meijer J, Ieong S, Xie Y, Yu T, et al. Salivary proteomic and genomic biomarkers for primary Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Nov; 56(11):3588-600.
52. Ryu OH, Atkinson JC, Hoehn GT, Illei GG, Hart TC. Identification of parotid salivary bi-omarkers in Sjogren's syndrome by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Sept;45(9): 1077-86.
53. Bikker A, van Woerkom JM, Kruize AA, Went-ing-van Wijk M, de Jager W, Bijlsma JW, et al. Increased expression of interleukin-7 in labial salivary glands of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome correlates with increased inflammation. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Apr; 62(4):969-77.
54. Bombardieri M, Barone F, Pittoni V, Alessandri C, Conigliaro P, Blades MC et al. Increased cir-culating levels and salivary gland expression of interleukin-18 in patients with Sjögren's syn-drome: Relationship with autoantibody produc-tion and lymphoid organization of the periduc-tal inflammatory infiltrate. Arthritis Res Ther. 2004 Aug; 6(5): R447-56.
55. Baldini C, Giusti L, Bazzichi L, Lucacchini A, Bombardieri S. Proteomic analysis of the saliva: A clue for understanding primary from second-ary Sjögren's syndrome? Autoimmun Rev. 2008 Jan; 7 (3):185-91.
56. Ferraccioli G, De Santis M, Peluso G, Inzitari R, Fanali C, Bosello SL, et al. Proteomic approach-es to Sjögren's syndrome: A clue to interpret the pathophysiology and organ involvement of the disease. Autoimmun Rev. 2010 Jul; 9(9):622-6.
57. Nagler RM. Saliva as a tool for oral cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Oral Oncol. 2009 Dec; 45(12):1006-10.
58. Agha-Hosseini F, Mirzaii-Dizgah I, Rahimi A. Correlation of serum and salivary CA15-3 lev-els in patients with breast cancer. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2009 Oct 1;14(10):e521-4.
59. Agha-Hosseini F, Mirzaii-Dizgah I, Rahimi A, Seilanian-Toosi M. Correlation of serum and salivary CA125 levels in patients with breast cancer. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2009 Nov 1;10(6):E001-8.
60. Rhodus NL, Ho V, Miller CS, Myers S, Ondrey F. NF-kappaB dependent cytokine levels in saliva of patients with oral prene-oplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carci-noma. Cancer Detect Prev. 2005Jan;29(1):42-5.
61. Wu JY, Yi C, Chung HR, Wang DJ, Chang WC, Lee SY, et al. Potential biomarkers in saliva for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2010 Apr; 46(4): 226-31.
62. Vucicević Boras V, Cikes N, Lukać J, Virag M, Cekić-Arambasin A. Salivary and serum interleukin 6 and basic fibroblast growth fac-tor levels in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Minerva Stomatol. 2005 Oct; 54(10):569-73.
63. Hoffmann RR, Yurgel LS, Campos MM. Evaluation of salivary endothelin-1 levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leu-koplakia. Regul Pept. 2011 Jan 17;166(1-3):55-8.
64. Pickering V, Jordan RC, Schmidt BL. Elevated salivary endothelin levels in oral cancer pa-tients-a pilot study. Oral Oncol. 2007 Jan; 43 (1):37-41.
65. St John MA, Li Y, Zhou X, Denny P, Ho CM, Montemagno C, et al. Interleukin 6 and inter-leukin 8 as potential biomarkers for oral cavi-ty and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcino-ma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004 Aug; 130(8):929-35.
66. Almadori G, Bussu F, Galli J, Limongelli A, Persichilli S, Zappacosta B, Minucci A, Palu-detti G, Giardina B. Salivary glutathione and uric acid levels in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck. 2007Jul; 29(7):648-54.
67. Barros SS, Henriques ÁC, Pereira KM, de Medeiros AM, Galvão HC, Freitas Rde A. Immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinases in squamous cell carcino-ma of the tongue and lower lip. Arch Oral Bi-ol. 2011 Aug; 56(8):752-60.
68. Fuchs PN, Rogić D, Vidović-Juras D, Susić M, Milenović A, Brailo V, Boras VV. Salivary analytes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Coll Antropol. 2011 Jun;35(2):359-62.
69. Shpitzer T, Hamzany Y, Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Savulescu D, Borovoi I, et al. Salivary analysis of oral cancer biomarkers. Br J Can-cer. 2009 Oct 6; 101(7):1194-8.
70. Shiiki N, Tokuyama S, Sato C, Kondo Y, Saruta J, Mori Y, et al. Association between saliva PSA and serum PSA in conditions with prostate adenocarcinoma. Biomarkers. 2011 Sept; 16 (6):498-503.
71. Zhang L, Farrell JJ, Zhou H, Elashoff D, Akin D, Park NH, et al. Salivary transcriptomic bi-omarkers for detection of resectable pancreat-ic cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010 Mar; 138(3):949-57.e1-7.
72. Zhang L, Xiao H, Karlan S, Zhou H, Gross J, Elashoff D, et al. Discovery and preclinical validation of salivary transcriptomic and pro-teomic biomarkers for the non-invasive detec-tion of breast cancer. Plos One. 2010 Dec; 31; 5(12): e15573.
73. Streckfus C, Bigler L. The use of soluble, sal-ivary c-erbB-2 for the detection and post-operative follow-up of breast cancer in wom-en: the results of a five-year translational research study. Adv Dent Res. 2005 Jun; 18(1):17-24.
74. Streckfus C, Bigler L. The use of soluble, sal-ivary c-erbB-2 for the detection and post-operative follow-up of breast cancer in wom-en: the results of a five-year translational re-search study. Adv Dent Res. 2005 Jun;18(1):17-24.
75. Chen DX, Li FQ. Primary research on saliva and serum CA125 assays for detecting malig-nant ovarian tumors. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 1990 Mar;25(2):84-5, 123-4.
76. Streckfus CF, Bigler LR. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Oral Dis. 2002 Mar;8(2):69-76.
77. Pink R, Simek J, Vondrakova J, Faber E, Michl P, Pazdera J, et al. Saliva as a diagnostic medium. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Rep. 2009 Jun; 153(2): 103-10.
78. Tremblay M, Gaudet D, Brisson D. Metabolic syndrome and oral markers of cardiometabol-ic risk. J Can Dent Assoc. 2011Sept; 77:b125.
79. Dimitrakakis C, Zava D, Marinopoulos S, Tsigginou A, Antsaklis A, Glaser R. Low sali-vary testosterone levels in patients with breast cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010 Oct; 11; 10: 547.
80. Klebanoff MA, Meis PJ, Dombrowski MP, Zhao Y, Moawad AH, Northen A, et al. Sali-vary progesterone and estriol among pregnant women treated with 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or placebo. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Nov; 199(5): 506.e1-7.
81. Heine RP, McGregor JA, Goodwin TM, Artal R, Hayash RH, Robertson PA, et al. Serial sal-ivary estriol to detect an increased risk of pre-term birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Oct; 96(4): 490-7.
82. Deutschbein T, Unger N, Hinrichs J, Walz MK, Mann K, Petersenn S. Late-night and low-dose dexamethasone-suppressed cortisol in saliva and serum for the diagnosis of corti-sol-secreting adrenal adenomas. Eur J Endo-crinol. 2009 Nov; 161(5):747-53.
83. Carroll T, Raff H, Findling JW. Late-night sal-ivary cortisol measurement in the diagnosis of cushing's syndrome. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jun;4(6):344-50.
84. Perogamvros I, Keevil BG, Ray DW, Trainer PJ. Salivary cortisone is a potential biomarker for serum free cortisol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov;95(11):4951-8.
85. Restituto P, Galofré JC, Gil MJ, Mugueta C, Santos S, Monreal JI, et al. Advantage of sali-vary cortisol measurements in the diagnosis of glucocorticoid related disorders. Clin Bio-chem. 2008 Jun;41(9):688-92.
86. Stanton SJ, Mullette-Gillman OA, Huettel SA. Seasonal variation of salivary testosterone in men, normally cycling women, and women using hormonal contraceptives. Physiol Be-hav. 2011 Oct 24; 104(5):804-8.
87. Papacosta E, Nassis GP. Saliva as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide and immune markers in sport and exercise science. J Sci Med Sport. 2011 Sept; 14(5):424-34.
88. Deutschbein T, Unger N, Mann K, Petersenn S. Diagnosis of secondary adrenal insuffi-ciency: unstimulated early morning cortisol in saliva and serum in comparison with the insu-lin tolerance test. Horm Metab Res. 2009 Nov; 41(11):834-9.
89. Manolopoulou J, Gerum S, Mulatero P, Ros-signol P, Plouin PF, Reincke M, et al. Salivary aldosterone as a diagnostic aid in primary al-dosteronism. Horm Metab Res. 2010 Jun; 42(6):400-5.
90. Manolopoulou J, Mulatero P, Maser-Gluth C, Rossignol P, Spyroglou A, Vakrilova Y, et al. Saliva as a medium for aldosterone measure-ment in repeated sampling studies. Steroids. 2009 Oct; 74(10-11):853-8.
91. Rao PV, Reddy AP, Lu X, Dasari S, Krish-naprasad A, Biggs E, et al. Proteomic identifi-cation of salivary biomarkers of type-2 diabe-tes. J Proteome Res. 2009 Jan; 8(1): 239-45.
92. Caseiro A, Vitorino R, Barros AS, Ferreira R, Calheiros-Lobo MJ, Carvalho D, et al. Sali-vary peptidome in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012 May;26(5):571-82.
93. Liu Y, Jin JQ, Yuan ZF, Liu XS, Cao J, Guo XH, et al. Levels of interlukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in saliva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and oral lichen planus. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2011 Aug 18; 43(4):596-9.
94. Montaldo L, Montaldo P, Papa A, Caramico N, Toro G. Effects of saliva substitutes on oral status in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2010 Nov; 27(11):1280-3.
95. Panchbhai AS, Degwekar SS, Bhowte RR. Es-timation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India. J Oral Sci. 2010 Sept; 52(3): 359-68.
96. Michelis R, Sela S, Ben-Zvi I, Nagler RM. Sal-ivary beta2-microglobulin analysis in chronic kidney disease and hemodialyzed patients. Blood Purif. 2007Jan; 25(5-6):505-9.
97. Savica V, Calò L, Santoro D, Monardo P, Granata A, Bellinghieri G. Salivary phosphate secretion in chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr. 2008 Jan; 18(1):87-90.
98. Raimann JG, Kirisits W, Gebetsroither E, Carter M, Callegari J, Rosales L, et al. Saliva urea dipstick test: application in chronic kid-ney disease. Clin Nephrol. 2011 Jul; 76(1):23-8.
99. Tomás I, Marinho JS, Limeres J, Santos MJ, Araújo L, Diz P. Changes in salivary composi-tion in patients with renal failure. Arch Oral Biol. 2008 Jun; 53(6):528-32.
100. Thorman R, Lundahl J, Yucel-Lindberg T, Hylander B. Inflammatory cytokines in saliva: early signs of metabolic disorders in chronic kidney disease. A controlled cross-sectional study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010 Nov; 110(5):597-604.
101. Farnaud SJ, Kosti O, Getting SJ, Renshaw D. Saliva: Physiology and diagnostic potential in health and disease. Scientific World J. 2010 Mar 16; 10:434-56.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Taaheri J, Bakhshi M, Aryankia A, Noormohammadi R. Use of Saliva for Diagnosis of Diseases. J Iran Dent Assoc. 2014; 26 (2) :136-147
URL: http://jida.ir/article-1-1605-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 26, Issue 2 (4-2014) Back to browse issues page
Journal of Iranian Dental Association


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly

Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4374