Comparison of anxiety and depression in patients with temporomandibular disorders and healthy individuals
Dr. M. Vojdani* - Dr. Gh.R. Dehbozorgi** - Dr. S. Mohammadzadeh*** - Dr. A. Akbari Jahromi***
* Assistant Professor of Dental Prostheses Dept., Faculty of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
** Assistant Professor of Psychiatry Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
Background and Aim: Psychological factors have been suggested to play a role in the maintenance and etiology of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), but its exact cause is complicated and multifactorial. This study aimed to compare anxiety and depression between patients with TMD and matched healthy individuals.
Materials and Methods: A total of 150 individuals including 75 TMD patients and 75 healthy volunteers were included in this case-control investigation. The participants were matched according to age, sex, occupation and socio-economic status. In order to collect demographic and general health information, all subjects were asked to fill-out questionnaires. Symptoms of anxiety were measured with the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scale and symptoms of depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scale. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, independent sample T-test and two-way ANOVA with SPSS software.
Results: The mean score for BDI was 15.2 in the case and 8.36 in the control groups, which showed a significant difference. BDI was not significantly different between males and females. State and Trait scores were significantly higher in the TMD patients as compared to the controls. A significant difference was not observed in Trait anxiety between the two sexes but men revealed significantly higher State anxiety scores than women.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that depression and anxiety were more prevalent among TMD patients in comparison to the normal population. Therefore psychological consultation for both men and women with TMD should be considered in the treatment plan.
Key words: Temporomandibular disorder – Depression - Anxiety.